Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular Diseases

Stroke and myocardial infarction are cerebro and cardiovascular conditions that can be originated from cardiac and/or vascular diseases. They are the main cause of mortality and disability not only worldwide, but also in Portugal.

Cardiovascular disease is trigged and exacerbated due to several risk factors, that include an unhealthy diet, overweight, high blood pressure, excess blood sugar levels, a sedentary lifestyle, uncontrolled stress, smoking and consumption of alcohol in excess.

Correcting one or more of these factors contributes to the reduction of the cardiovascular risk.

Always consult your doctor. 


The systolic (top number) and diastolic (bottom number) blood pressure relates to the force against the vessel walls as the blood is pumped out from the heart. The pressure is highest when the blood is pumped from the heart to the arteries. When the heart relaxes between heartbeats, the pressure lowers in the arteries. The systolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting, pumping the blood to the body. The diastolic pressure is the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes to fill itself again with blood. In the majority of the cases (90%) there is no known reason for hypertension and, in that case, it is said the hypertension either is essential or primary. In the other situations, it is possible to find a disease/condition associated, which is the true cause for hypertension and here it is said that it is a secondary hypertension. It is measured in mmHg (mercury millimetres). High values can lead to cardiovascular injuries, so there is the need to control the blood pressure in the parameters defined for each patient and to maintain these value, through time.

Usually, Hypertension is a "silent disease", which means a person can live years without symptoms. In some cases, can cause headaches, dizziness, fatigue, or more rarely, blurred vision. The only way to diagnose Hypertension or to verify if it is controlled, it's through frequently measure the blood pressure.

Besides checking blood pressure, it is also important to have a healthy lifestyle, practice exercise regularly and have a good diet – reduce the salt, grease and sugars.

Always consult your doctor. 

Angina Pectoris

Angina Pectoris (or Chronic Coronary Disease) is a condition caused by chest pain or discomfort, triggered by a physical effort or by emotions.

This pain is caused due to the imbalance between the need and the offer of oxygen in the blood that reaches the heart. It happens when the blood flow decreases in the arteries that take the oxygen to the heart. It is more frequent in people over 50 years old, and, if not properly treated, it can provoke myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, heart failure or stroke, which can lead to disability or death. It is a highly disabling disease that can impact patients' lives, since any physical effort or emotion can lead to pain.

The treatment for angina is based on two principles:

One related to the delay of disease progression and the prevention of events and the other is related to symptom relief and the reduction of angina episodes (where the antianginal drugs are included).

It is recommended to use antianginal drugs as an auxiliary therapy in Angina Pectoris, to reduce the angina episodes and to improve the quality of life.

Always consult your doctor.

Heart Failure

Heart Failure occurs from the difficulty that the heart has in delivering blood to the other organs: on one hand, pump the blood through the body and on the other relax and be able to receive the blood again, naturally. Usually, it occurs in people over 65 years old but it can happen at any age.

To help prevent this condition, you should maintain a healthy life style, also control the blood pressure, blood sugar and the cholesterol levels, avoid alcohol, smoking and a sedentary lifestyle.

In many cases, the use of beta blockers is needed to control heart failure. Nowadays, there are 3rd generation beta blockers that can help this chronic condition.

Always consult your doctor. 


Dyslipidemias are abnormalities of the level of lipids (fat) in the blood. They can lead to the development of atherosclerosis and/or other cardiovascular diseases.

Dyslipidemia can affect different types of molecules. There can be, for instance, an increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol or bad cholesterol (LDL) and/or a decrease in the levels of good cholesterol (HDL). 

To prevent this condition, it is recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle, exercise, reduce fatty foods, like fatty sausages, fat meat and avoid fried food, giving preference to vegetables and fruits consumption, fibres, fish and lean meat, cooked with olive oil, steamed or grilled.

If lifestyle changes are not enough, there are solutions for reducing cholesterol and triglycerides. 

Always consult your doctor.

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